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Full text of "VIC-1525 Printer User's Manual (1982)(Commodore)"

VIC 1525 



USER'S MANUAL 




Cx commodore 

COMPUTER 



INFORMATION TO USER 



"WARNING: THIS EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN CERTIFIED TO COMPLY WITH 
THE LIMITS FOR A CLASS B COMPUTING DEVICE, PURSUANT TO SUB- 
PART J OF PART 15 OF FCC RULES. ONLY PERIPHERALS (COMPUTER 
INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES, TERMINALS, PRINTERS, ETC.) CERTIFIED TO 
COMPLY WITH THE CLASS B LIMITS MAY BE ATTACHED TO THIS 
COMPUTER. OPERATION WITH NON-CERTIFIED PERIPHERALS IS LIKELY 
TO RESULT IN INTERFERENCE TO RADIO AND TV RECEPTION." 

"THIS EQUIPMENT GENERATES AND USES RADIO FREQUENCY ENERGY 
AND IF NOT INSTALLED PROPERLY, THAT IS, IN STRICT ACCORDANCE 
WITH THE MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS, MAY CAUSE INTER- 
FERENCE TO RADIO AND TELEVISION RECEPTION. IT HAS BEEN TYPE 
TESTED AND FOUND TO COMPLY WITH THE LIMITS FOR A CLASS B 
COMPUTING DEVICE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SPECIFICATIONS IN 
SUBPART J OF PART 15 OF FCC RULES, WHICH ARE DESIGNED TO 
PROVIDE REASONABLE PROTECTION AGAINST SUCH INTERFERENCE 
IN A RESIDENTIAL INSTALLATION. HOWEVER, THERE IS NO GUAR- 
ANTEE THAT INTERFERENCE WILL NOT OCCUR IN A PARTICULAR 
INSTALLATION. IF THIS EQUIPMENT DOES CAUSE INTERFERENCE TO 
RADIO OR TELEVISION RECEPTION, WHICH CAN BE DETERMINED BY 
TURNING THE EQUIPMENT OFF AND ON, THE USER IS ENCOURAGED TO 
TRY TO CORRECT THE INTERFERENCE BY ONE OR MORE OF THE 
FOLLOWING MEASURES: 

• REORIENTTHE RECEIVING ANTENNA 

• RELOCATE THE COMPUTER WITH RESPECT TO 
THE RECEIVER 

• MOVE THE COMPUTER AWAY FROM THE RECEIVER 

• PLUG THE COMPUTER INTO A DIFFERENT OUTLET 

SO THAT COMPUTER AND RECEIVER ARE ON DIFFERENT 
BRANCH CIRCUITS 

"IF NECESSARY, THE USER SHOULD CONSULT THE DEALER OR AN 
EXPERIENCED RADIO/TELEVISION TECHNICIAN FOR ADDITIONAL 
SUGGESTIONS. THE USER MAY FIND THE FOLLOWING BOOKLET PRE- 
PARED BY THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION HELPFUL: 
'HOW TO IDENTIFY AND RESOLVE RADIO-TV INTERFERENCE 
PROBLEMS.' THIS BOOKLET IS AVAILABLE FROM THE U.S. GOVERN- 
MENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D.C. 20402, STOCK NO. 004- 
000-00345^." 

PART NO: 320970 



VIC 1525 

GRAPHIC PRINTER 

USER'S MANUAL 



P/N 1525001-02 



Cz. commodore 

COMPUTER 



WARNING: This equipment has been certified to comply with the limits for a 
Class B computing device, pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules. Only 
computers certified to comply with the Class B limits may be attached to this 
printer. Operation with noncertified computers is likely to result in interference 
to radio and TV reception," 

This warning is valid for the equipment which has the following FCC label 
on its rear. 



CERTIFIED TO COMPLY WITH CLASS B LIMITS 
PART 15 OF FCC RULES SEE INSTRUCTIONS IF 
INTERFERENCE TO RADIO RECEPTION IS SUS- 
PECTED. 



The information in this manual has been reviewed and is believed to be 
entirely reliable. No responsibility, however, is assumed for inaccuracies. 
The material in this manual is for information purposes only, and is subject 
to change without notice. 



This manual is copyrighted and contains proprietary information. No part 
of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo- 
copying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of 
COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES, Inc. 



Copyright ©1982 by Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
All rights reserved. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Section 1 : GENERAL INFORMATION 

1 . External Appearances and Names of Parts 3 

2. Operating Your Printer 4 

3. Interface 5 

Section 2. PREPARING TO USE YOUR PRINTER 

1. Installation 6 

2. Installing the Ribbon Cassette 6-7 

3. Paper Instructions 8-11 

4. Connecting the Printer to Your Computer 11 

5. Performing the Printer Power-On Test 12 

6. Performing the Print Head Test 12 

7. Maintenance 13 

8. Cautions 14 

Section 3: USING YOUR PRINTER 

Introduction 15 

1. Special Printer-Associated Commands 15-17 

2. Printing in the Direct Mode 18 

3. Printing Under Program Control 19 

4. Printing Modes and Control Codes 19-20 

4.1 Standard Character Mode 20 

4.2 Double Width Character Mode 20 

4.3 Graphic Mode 20-22 

4.4 Print Position Determination 22-23 

4.5 Print Start Position-Dot Address 24 

4.6 Repetition of Graphic Data 25 

4.7 "CURSOR UP" Mode 25-26 

4.8 "CURSOR DOWN" Mode 26 

4.9 Reverse Field Mode 26-27 

4.10 Reset Reverse Field Mode 27 

4.1 1 Mixture of Various Print Mode 27-28 

4.12 Line Feed Spacing 28 

4.13 Data Buffer Size 28-29 

5. Automatic Printing 29 

Section 4: APPENDICES 

1. Appendix A: 

VIC 1525 Printer Specifications 30 

VIC 1515 Printer Specifications 31 

2. Appendix B: 

Hard Copy off the Screen 32 

3. Appendix C: 

VIC Printer Code Table (Cursor Up Mode) 33 

VIC Printer Code Table (Cursor Down Mode) 34 

1. 



Section 1: 
GENERAL INFORMATION 

Welcome to a new dimension in computing. Because you bought the 
Commodore VIC printer, you've added a great deal of versitility and 
convenience to the use of your Commodore computer. This manual contains all 
the information you need to check out, hook up, and operate your printer, but 
in order to get the most out of your computer system you should continue to 
look at both your computer's User's Guide and Programmer's Reference Manual. 

Your VIC printer is designed to operate through software control. That means 
you have to make the printer's operation part of a program. For example the 
VIC-20 has a TYPEWRITER cartridge that comes in the VIC SIX-PACK. It's 
designed to operate the printer by holding down the SHIFT key and pressing 
the f/1 Yellow Function Key. 

The VIC Printer prints both capital and small letters, numbers, and all the 
graphic characters available on your computer. It will even print custom made 
graphics and charts that you design on your VIC-20 or Commodore 64. In 
addition your printer has a variety of built-in functions of its own. This is 
because your printer has its own computer inside. 

The advantages of this internal computer are 1) it automatically resets all its 
switches to the starting sequence every time you turn the printer on; 2) it 
contains its own internal memory which means that you can store information 
to be printed directly in the printer without using up your computer's memory. 

Your printer is designed to connect directly into your computer through the 
Serial Port (6-pins). However, you can connect your printer to as many as 5 VIC 
disk drives by daisy-chaining. Daisy-chaining means connecting 1 peripheral to 
your computer and any additional peripherals plug into the Serial Port of the 
last item connected. 



2. 



1 . External Appearance and Names of Parts 




Paper Holder 



Ribbon Cassette 



Self-Diagnostic Switch 



Connector 



Printer Cover 



Paper Feed Dial 

Upper Case 

Lower Case 




Power Cord 



3. 



2. Operating Your Printer 

PART OPERATION & FUNCTION 



a. Power Switch 

b. Power Indicator 

c. Self-Diagnostic Switch 



1.3 



d. Printer Cover 



Turns printer on and off 

Lights up when printer is turned on 

Select printer device number, "4" is the normal 
position for one printer. "5" is the position to use 
with your second printer. "T" is the self-diagnostic 
test position. 

Use your cover to protect your printer from dust 
and to reduce the noise level while the printer is in 
operation. 



e. Tractor Mechanism 



f. Paper Advance Dial 



g. Fuse 



After loading your paper properly (see Section 2, 
part 3) the Tractor Mechanism should be snapped 
closed to hold the paper in place. Tractor holes on 
the edges of the paper must line up with the pins 
of the Tractor Mechanism. 

Once you have properly threaded your paper, you 
can use the Paper Feed Dial to move the paper 
ahead, 1 line at a time in the forward direction 
only! 

The Fuse is located on the underside of the printer. 
It is rated at 0.5 A for 1 17V version, 0.25A for 
220/240V version. If you turn on your printer 
and it does not work, then turn the printer off 
and check the fuse. 



4. 



3. Interface 



Connector 



Interface 




Pin No. 


Signal 


l 


SERIAL SRQ 


2 


G N D 


3 


SERIAL ATN 


4 


SERIAL CLK 


5 


SERIAL. DATA 


6 


RES 



1.5 



a. Use the enclosed connecting cable to connect the printer to 
your computer. Plug one end of the 6-pin connector cable into 
the 6-hole Serial Port on your computer. Plug the other end of 
the 6-pin connector into the 6-hole connector of your printer. 
If you are facing the back of the printer, the connector hole is 
in the lower left (see figure 1.2). 

b. Select the device number . 



1.6 Device Selector Switch 

Just as your computer has different character modes, so does 
your printer. To choose either the GRAPHICS/UPPER CASE 
or UPPER CASE/LOWER CASE mode, you must assign a 
SECONDARY ADDRESS (SA) so that the printer prints in 
the same mode that you've chosen for your computer. The 
secondary address can either be or 7. 

SA = 0: "CURSOR UP" (graphics/upper case) Mode 

SA = 7: "CURSOR DOWN" (upper case/lower case) Mode 



If there is an error in your program that pertains to printer 
operation, your printer will stop printing and the appropriate 
error message will appear on the screen of your computer. 

User defined machine language IRQ routines should not ex- 
ceed 10 milliseconds. 
If this is done, the printer may give "Device not present" error. 



5. 



Section 2: 
PREPARING TO USE YOUR PRINTER 

1. Installation 

Please follow the precautions listed below when setting up your printer. 
These measures are designed to help you keep your printer functioning at 
its best. 

* Place your printer on a flat and level surface, like a tabletop. 

* Avoid placing your printer in rooms with high humidity. 

* Keep your printer as dust-free as possible. 

* Keep your printer out of direct sunlight. 

* Avoid placing your printer through extreme temperature 
changes. 

2. Installing the Ribbon Cassette 

a. Find the packet that contains the ribbon cassette. You should have 
received this packet in the same box that your printer came in. 

b. Remove the ribbon cassette from the packet and place it carefully in 
front of you. 

c. Look at the cassette. You will notice that one side has a flat surface 
while the other side has little tabs sticking out. Place the cassette so 
that the tabs are closest to you. 

d. Now place the ribbon cassette on the same surface as your printer. 
Place the cassette so that it is between you and your printer, making 
sure that the tabs are still closest to you. 

e. Remove the clear printer cover from the top of your printer. 



f Now look at the drawings (2.1) shown on the next page. As you can 
see, you should install the ribbon cassette on the right side of your 
printer first. Be sure to install the right half of the cassette on the 
right side of the printer (location 0). 

g' Lift both parts of the cassette up to the printer. Notice that the 
silver ribbon holders in the printer have holes drilled into them. 
These correspond to a pin located on the bottom of each half of 
the cassette. 



6. 



J- 



Carefully slide the right part of the cassette onto the rightmost edge 
of the cassette holder and push to the left and then down, until the 
cassette locks itself into the appropriate hole. 

Now slowly pull the left half of the ribbon cassette to the left. You 
will see that the ribbon itself begins to come out of the cassette 
already attached. 

Thread the ribbon as shown in the diagram (2. l)below (location (2) ). 



k. Once you have properly threaded the ribbon, attach the left half of 
the cassette to the left silver ribbon cassette holder (location©) in 
the same way that you attached the right side. 



NOTE: 



1 . Make sure that the ribbon is not twisted. 



2. The ribbon cassettes can not be installed if the left 
and right cassettes are reversed. 

3. DO NOT TRY TO MOVE THE PRINT HEAD 
MANUALLY! FORCING MOVEMENT MAY 
DAMAGE THE PRINTER! 

When it's time to replace a worn-out ribbon, use ONLY the specified 
replacement ribbon. To remove the old ribbon, follow the above 
procedure in reverse. Then follow the steps in the proper order to install 
the new ribbon. 




7. 



3. Paper Instructions 

3.1 Paper Loading Instructions (See Appendix A For Paper Specifica- 
tions) 

a. Make sure that the power on your printer is turned OFF 
before loading the paper. 

b. Remove the printer cover. 

c. Open the plastic snaps over the paper-holding pins (sprockets). 

d. Adjust the entire sprocket assembly so that it is positioned for 
the proper paper width. Move each set of sprockets left or 
right so that the final position chosen does not pull the paper 
too tightly nor does it keep the paper too loose. 



(d) 

mill linn 



(d) 

llllll HUH 




2.2 



Now that you've approximated the paper position, it's time to 
insert the paper. From the back of the printer, carefully thread 
the paper down the slope and through the guides. Next go 
around the platen making sure that, as the -paper comes into 
view in the front of the printer, you thread the paper between 
the platen and the ribbon (see Figure 2.3). 

When the paper comes from between the ribbon and platen, 
fit it over the sprockets so that everything is lined up. Make 
sure that the holes on the edge of the paper fit exactly on at 

least. 3 pins on the sprocket assembly. 



8. 



This may seem difficult at first, but once you've made 
the final adjustments to position your sprocket assembly 
to the exact paper width, you won't have to adjust anything 
but the paper in future loadings. 



Paper Holder 



Ribbon 



Paper 




Platen 



t 





^Paper Holder 






l^ 






\ Sprocket Unit 


















4 ( 














f/og/7 


// & tr~ 


fa ( 


K 




[qfbk_j 


zi Ctl 


L 






Pfl \ 







o 



o 
o 








o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 


2.4 



h. 



Snap shut the paper holders on the sprocket assembly. This 
will keep your paper feeding smoothly. 



3.2 Final Adjustments 



a. 



Manually set the position of the top of the paper to the 
position you want by pushing on the rotating paper feed dial 
(shown below in Fig. 2.5). Notice that to make the paper 



9. 



move in a forward direction, you must push the dial towards 
the back of the printer. Do NOT try to make the paper feed 
dial move in reverse towards the front of the machine. 



Paper Feed Dial 




b. Put the printer cover back on your printer. NOTE: Keep 
your box of unused paper, which is to be fed into the printer, 
in a direct line with the sprocket pins so that it will feed 
smoothly. J 

3.3 Printing Pressure Adjustment 

You may adjust a lever on the print head according to the thickness of the 
paper. If smudging occurs or if printing is too dark, move this lever one 
click hole counterclockwise at a time until you are satisfied with the 
printing quality; if printing is too light, move it clockwise . When adjusting 
the lever, make sure that it is placed directly in the hole, not "in between" 
two of them. 



Click Hole 




^7 2.6 



10. 



3.4 Print Starting Position 

To get an idea as to where your printer will start the actual typing, 
see the figure below. Notice that printing starts at the position about 
30mm in from the left edge of the printer. 



^° — 


(.! . 








I 




fn 




^UTTtrn 




1 


L 




o ABCD 




ll 




o 
o 








o 
o 

\ ° 




- 


11 



2.7 



Paper 



4. Connecting the Printer to Your Computer 

To connect your printer to your Commodore computer, please follow the 
instructions in the order listed below. 

a. Make sure that both your computer and printer have their power 
turned OFF. 



Connect one end of the 6-pin DIN cable to the connector holes 
located in the back of your printer at the lower left. This cable is 
"keyed" so that you cannot plug the cable in the wrong way. This 
means that the pins should be positioned so that a slight pressure 
will seat the cable properly. You should not have to force these pins 
in, and doing so could damage your cable. 

Connect the other end of the cable to your computer in the Serial 
Port Connector located in the back of your computer. Make sure 
that you are "keying" the pins properly into the connector with 6 
holes (see Photos, Fig. 2.8). 

Now plug the printer's power cord into a standard AC wall outlet. 
However, please do NOT turn the equipment on yet. 





2.8 



11. 



5. Performing the Printer Power-On Test 

Please do NOT turn on your computer until after you have completed the 
next two sections. 

a. Turn on your printer. The print head should move to the center of 
the carriage automatically and then return to the original position. If 
this doesn't happen, move to step "b". 

b. If the print head does not move as described above, check to see if 
the connecting cable is properly plugged in. Then turn on your 
printer and try the test again. 

6. Performing the Print Head Test 

You can test the print head and ribbon ONLY AFTER INSERTING 
PAPER. DO NOT PRINT WITHOUT PAPER; it could easily damage your 
print head. To perform the test, simply switch the self-diagnostic switch to 
"T" (shown in Fig. 2.9). The printer will continue to print all the characters 
available until 1) the printer is turned off; or 2) the self-diagnostic switch 
is "flipped" to position 4 or 5. When the printing is finished, remove it 
from the machine and examine it for defects. Please report any problems 
immediately to your local Commodore dealer so that your printer can be 
properly serviced. A typical printout for the VIC 20 is shown below. 



2.9: Test Position Selected 

■i " #S/i4' 0*+ ■-. /9 123456789 ; ; <»?9flBCDEFGH I JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXVZC £] t'—f I — "-! K ^l_VT 
li-»l *D+ !♦-« Iff"' I ■""J X \f H-iH-r-SHI I r~«_k ,J ""i-4!~^"-! I-, ^LVTTi-»l ,XD* 1*4* Ifft 

U~J I U/'ll-ih_r J -HI I r~^k v 'it i "#$;:&' •'..) *+.-. /e 123456739 ■ ;<=>?Sabcde*'9hi Jkl mo 
P^rstuvwxazC£]t*-RECDEFGHIJKLMH0PQR3TUVUXVZ-tl IXS |.~J I yt ll-.h_rSH! I r~-^i ,J ""i 
-flBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTIJVUXVZ"« IK'S I ■"* J S W/, ! I- ■ H _ H-H I ! r~-/i '-"'.'. ! "*$VA '<)*+,-. / 
0123456789 :;<=>?(»flBCDEFGHIJKLMHOPQRSTUVWKVZC£]'N-* I -^"-1 I-, ■- , Lvni-*l sxo* l*-Hf \n^ 

I--J8 1/ IhiS-H-HI I r-«Jt "J" V*l— ~-l K ^LVTTiJH /X0* 1*4* Iff"* l.-J * fc»r !fih_ 
r»-rll I f~~-Ji ""'if !"#*/:A'()*+,-./eil 23456789 ■•.. <=>?0abcdef9hi JklmrioPqrstuvwxazCf] t«- 
-flSCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQRSTUVWXV2-H! IKS 1«~J 8 W% IH. H_ r^rHI I r~-/i ,J " VflBCDEFGHIJKLMNO 
PQRSTUVWXVZ-H IMS l«~J 8 W% Ihih-H-HI I r - -'! "-"■« ! "#*;■:&' 0*+, -./912?4567S9 : ; 0>? 
9flBCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQRSTUVUXVZ[£]t*-*l -I h v LvrH-»! ,;Ct If 



2.10: Sample Printout 



12. 



7. MAINTENANCE 

We hope you don't have problems but just in case ... see if you can solve 
them by using the table below. If you can't, then try to determine which 
component in your system is at fault, and bring it into a store for repair. 



Problems 



Probable Causes/Solutions 



Printer won't print. 
Power Indicator 'OFF'. 



1) Printer power is 'OFF'. 

Check the connection and the power 
switch. 

2) Fuse may be blown. 

Replace only with a fuse of the same 
rating. 



Printer won't print. 
Power Indicator 'ON'. 



1) Improper connection. 

Check all the cable connections. 

2) Improper ribbon setting. 
Re-adjust the ribbon. 



Printer okay, but the paper 
won't advance. 



Paper is jammed. 

Remove and reload the paper. 



Printed characters are too 
light or smudging. 



1) Improper printing pressure. 

Adjust the lever's position on the print 
head. 

2) Wrong ribbon setting. 
Re-adjust the ribbon 

3) Old or worn-out ribbon. 
Replace the ribbon. 



13. 



8. CAUTIONS 



Wait at least two seconds to turn on the power after it is turned off, 
otherwise the Printer will not be initialized properly. 

Never place the Printer where it is exposed to direct sunlight. 

Never apply power while you are plugging in or unplugging an input 
connector. 

Never turn off the power while the Printer is in motion. 

Never try to move the print head manually, whether the power is on 
or off. 

Do not stop the print head motion while it is printing. 

Do not print without paper and/or ribbon because the print head 
might be damaged. 

Turn off the power quickly and remove a foreign object, if you drop 
it into the Printer. 

Do not subject the Printer to temperatures below 5°C or above 40°C 
during operations, or to a sudden change in temperature. 

Regarding printing duty: 

In graphic mode, using patterns with too much dot density will wear 
out the print head faster. We recommend that you use patterns 
whose dot density is equal to that of ordinary alphanumerics. The 
continuous printing of high dot density patterns may adversely 
affect the longevity of the print head. 

Unplug the power cord before trying to take off the outer casing. 



14. 



Section 3: 

USING YOUR PRINTER 

Introduction 

Now that you've learned how to insert the ribbon and paper into your printer, 
connect the printer to your computer, and how to test your printer for 
problems, you're ready for the next step: putting the VIC printer to work for 
you. 

Your printer does a lot more than give a clean, fast printing of your work. It has 
its own internal microprocessor (computing system) which makes it both 
versatile and practical. In addition, it doesn't need to use up precious memory 
space in your computer because it stores everything you want to print in its own 
memory. 

In this section we will show you how to use your printer to print listings, 
program results, and graphic displays. You will also see how to make double 
width characters and even how to create a few custom designed graphics. But 
before you go any farther in this manual, make sure that you are able to do the 
following: 

1 . Operate your Commodore computer. 

2. Write elementary programs in BASIC. 

3. Read and write files to and from a peripheral device, like a tape 
cassette recorder or disk drive. 

4. Open and close files. 

If you are not familiar with any of the above procedures, check your 
computer's User's Manual for the information you need. 

1 . Special Printer- Associated Commands 

When you want to print something on your printer, essentially what you 
are doing is transferring the video screen function to the printer. A few 
special BASIC commands allow you to make this transfer. Most of the 
other rules and syntax of BASIC remain the same. Don't forget to type the 
RETURN key after each line of information. 

The OPEN Command 

This command creates a correspondence between a file number and a 
physical device. The logical file number (Ifn) may be any number from 1 
to 255. It doesn't matter which number you choose, as long as you keep 
the same number throughout your set of commands. 

15. 



The device number (dn) refers to the device to which you send the file. 
The first device number is also known as the primary address. If you are 
using a VIC- 1525 printer, the dn (device number) is usually 4. Check the 
test switch on your printer to see what dn to choose. 

The secondary address (sa) is an optional and unique printer concept. It 
tells the printer's internal microprocessor that formatting is going to occur. 
As explained in SECTION 3.2 (interface), you can select one of the 
following modes: 

0: "CURSOR UP" Mode 
7: "CURSOR DOWN" Mode 



The SYNTAX for the OPEN Command is: 



OPEN lfn, dn 


or 


OPEN lfn, dn, sa 


OPEN 99, 4 


or 


OPEN 1,4,0 


OPEN 2, 4 


or 


OPEN 26, 4, 7 



The CMD Command 

The CMD command transfers control from the computer to the printer. 
The lfn (logical file number) must be the same as the one you chose for 
the OPEN command. If you are using more than 1 OPEN command, each 
CMD command must have the same number as the corresponding OPEN 
command. Unlike a PRINT# command (which is discussed next), the line 
to the receiving device (in this case your printer) is left open. The device 
given the CMD command is said to be "listening." That means that once 
you give the CMD command, your printer will print READY and it will 
then be open and waiting for further instructions. At this point, any 
PRINT or LIST command will go directly to the printer as output. 

The SYNTAX for the CMD Command is: 

CMD lfn 
CMD 99 
CMD 2 

(notice that the CMD logical file numbers correspond to the 
OPENlfn's) 



The PRINT* Command 

The PRINT* command works just like the BASIC command PRINT 
except that it directs the output to the printer instead of to the video 
screen. After the data you have sent to the printer is finished, the lfn is 

16. 



automatically closed. This is called "unlistening" and it means that in 
order to PRINT# more data, you must re-open the file by using another 
CMD command. By the way, please notice that you can NOT leave a space 
between PRINT and # or the command will not work. 



NOTE: In CBM BASIC V2, the PRINT command can be 
abbreviated by using a "?". You can NOT do this with 
PRINT*. You must always type PRINT# in full. 



The SYNTAX for the PRINT* Command is: 

PRINT* Ifn, data 
PRINT* 99, "HELLO VIC" 
PRINT* 2, CHR$(124),123,63,76 

The CLOSE Command 

The CLOSE command is a very important command to use efficiently. You 
should always CLOSE a file after you've printed from it. The reason is 
that you can only have a maximum of 10 files open at anytime. Therefore, 
if you make a habit of closing files when you've finished with them, you 
will always have the maximum number of files available. 



NOTE: Since the CMD command does not close the line to 
the printer, you must always follow a PRINT* command with 
the CLOSE command in order to properly close a file. 



The SYNTAX for the CLOSE Command is: 

CLOSE Ifn 
CLOSE 99 
CLOSE 2 

EXAMPLES Using all commands correctly: 

OPEN 99, 4 

PRINT* 99, "HELLO VIC" 

CLOSE 99 

OPEN 99, 4 

CMD 99, "HELLO VIC" 

PRINT* 99; CLOSE 99 

OPEN 2, 4 

PRINT *2, CHR$(124), 123, 63, 76 

CMD 2 

PRINT* 2 

CLOSE 2 



2. Printing in the Direct Mode 

Now that you have gone through the various printing commands and what 
they do, let's put them to use in practical applications. The DIRECT mode 
allows you to communicate with your printer by entering printing com- 
mands DIRECTly from the keyboard of your computer. 

The following example illustrates the entire DIRECT mode listing process 
in a short BASIC program. In this example, a file containing a single 
BASIC statement is typed into the computer's memory. The file is then 
OPENed. The output channel to the printer is opened and the printer is 
"listening" using the CMD command. The file is LISTed. The output 
channel is closed using the PRINT# command. Finally the file is CLOSEd. 
The printer is now out of use and the computer is ready to accept new 
commands. 





You type : 


The screen displays: 


The printer prints: 


CD 


10? "TEST" 


10? "TEST" 




d; 


0PEN3.4 


0PEN3.4 
RERDV. 




® 


CMD3 


CMD3 


RERDV. 


® 


LIST 


LIST 


18 PRINT"TEST" 
RERDV. 


© 


PRINT#3 


PRINT#3 




© 


CL0SE3 


CL0SE3 
RERDV. 





3.1 



(1) You place the data in the computer's memory. 



(2) You OPEN the file and give it a logical file number (Ifn) of 3. The 4 
(following the comma) makes the file available to the printer. 

(3) The printer is "listening." 

(4) The program is LISTed onto the printer. The printer is still 
"listening." 

(5) Use the PRINT# command to "unlisten" the printer. 

(6) You CLOSE the file so that the lfn 3 can be used for something else. 

18. 



3. Printing Under Program Control 

Now that you have seen how to control the printer directly from the 
keyboard, it's time to control the printer from within a BASIC program. 
The short BASIC example below would already be in the computer's 
memory. It could have been placed there from the keyboard, a cassette 
tape, or a floppy disk. 

10 0PEN3,4 

20 CMD3 

36 PREPROGRAM CONTROL" 

40 LIST 

3.2 

The RUN command is given and the resulting printout is shown here: 

PROGRAM CONTROL 

10 0PEN3,4 

20 CMD3 

30 PRINT"PR00RflM CONTROL" 

40 LIST 



RERDV. 



3.3 



REMEMBER THIS! When using the LIST command within a 
program execution, you must type the PRINT# command to 
close the channel. Then type the CLOSE command to close 
the file after you have finished RUNning the file. Although 
this works, it is NOT good programming practice. It is sug- 
gested that you only use the CMD command and DIRECT 
mode. 



4. Printing Modes and Control Codes 

You can also use your printer and the PRINT#, CMD and PRINT 
commands in conjunction with CHR$ codes to do the following: 

DESCRIPTION INPUT CODE 

Enter Graphic Mode CHR$(8) 

Line Feed After Printing CHR$(10) 

Carriage Return CHR$(13) 

Enter Double Width Character Mode CHR$(14) 

Enter Standard Character Mode CHR$(15) 

Tab Setting the Print Head CHR$(16) 

Enter Cursor Down Mode CHR$(17) 

19. 



Start Reverse Field CHR$(18) 

Repeat Graphics Selected CHR$(26) 

Specify Dot Address (must follow Print Head Tab Code) CHR$(27) 

Enter Cursor Up Mode CHR$(145) 

Turn Off Reverse Field CHR$(146) 



4. 1 Standard Character Mode 

When the printer is turned on, it is set to start in the STANDARD 
CHARACTER mode. But once you select different character modes 
the printer will remain in that mode until a different one is chosen 
using the CHR$ code. For the example below, we started in double 
width mode "CHR$(14)" for the title and then went to the stand 
character mode "CHR$(15)" to list the program. 

V I C 1 ^ 2: ^ F" F: I M T IE". F: 



10 OPEN 1,4 

.2© PRINT#1,CHR*<14>"VIC 1525 PRINTER" 

38 PRINT#1,CHR*U5> 

46 CMD1 :LIST 



RERDV - . 

3.4 

4.2 Double Width Character Mode 

To print in the DOUBLE WIDTH CHARACTER mode, use the 
CHR$(14) code and follow the example below. 

Example 

10 OPEN 1,4 

20 PRINT#1,CHR*<14>"VIC 1525 PRINTER" 

30 CLOSE 1 

RUN 

VIC l^f.S:^ RRIMXER 

3.5 

4.3 Graphic Mode 

By using CHR$(8) you enter the GRAPHIC mode. This allows you 
to design and print graphics by inputting data. Each DATA 

20. 



statement is made of numbers that represent a row of dots which, 
when READ all together, will make up your graphic. To design your 
graphic, follow the example below. You should notice that each 
number in the DATA statement corresponds to 1 row in your 
graphic. To design a graphic, follow these steps: 

1 . Get a separate piece of paper to design your picture. 

2. Number 7 consecutive rows like this: 

1 

2 

4 

8 

16 

32 

64 

3. Now design your graphic in dot form (see the example below). 

4. Add together all the numbers from the column on the left, 
only wherever you have placed a dot in a row. In our example, 
the first column has 3 dots located in rows 4, 8, 16. Added 
together they equal 28. 

5. Now add 128 to the total you had for each column in step 4. 
In our example we add 128 to 28 for a total of 156. 

6. Put your final total for each column into a data statement in 
column order. 



1 o o • • o o o 

2 o • o o • • o 
4 • o o o • o o 

8 #000000* (Direction of print head 

16 • O O O • O O movement) 

32 O • O O • • O 

64 o o • • o o o 



' 128 



156 162 193 193 182 162 
The DATA statement in your program will read: 

DATA 156,162,193, 182, 162 
The following program will print COMMODORE with its logo 4 times. 

21. 



10 DRTR156, 162> 133, 193, 182, 162 

20 F0RI*1T06 

39 REflDfl 

40 R$«R$+CHR$<fl) 
30 NEXT 

60 0PEN4/4 

70 F0RI-1T04 

80 PRINT#4,CHR*(6)fl$i 

90 PRINT#4,CHR*<15>" COMMODORE 1 ' 

100 NEXT 

After typing RUN, you get this result: 

C COMMODORE 
COMMODORE 
COMMODORE 

C COMMODORE 

3.6 

4.4 Print Position Determination 

With the CHR$(16) code you can determine the print start position. 
This is done by assigning a 2-digit number following the CHR$(16) 
(see the examples below). 

Example 

10 0PEH4,4 

20 FOR I*1T04 

30 PRINT#4, "0123456789"; 

40 NEXT I 

50 PRINT#4,CHR*<10> 

60 PRINT#4,CHR*<16)CHR*<48)CHR*<36) 

"VIC-1525"; 
70 PRINT#4,CHR*<16)CHR$<51)CHR*<48) 

"PRINTER" 
80 CLOSE4 

RUN 

1 234567850 1 234567890 1 234567890 1 23456789 

VIC- 1525 PRINTER 

3.7 
22. 



10 0PEN4,4 

20 FOR I-1T04 

30 PRINT#4,"0123456789"; 

40 NEXT I 

50 PRINT#4,CHR$<10> 

60PRINT#4,CHR*<l6>"0eVIC-1525"; 

70 PRINT#4,CHR*<16>"30PRINTER" 

60 CL0SE4 

RUN 

0123456789012345678901234567690123456789 
VIC- 1525 PRINTER 



3.8 

The 2-digit numbers following the CHR$(16) code are the print start 
position of your standard characters. This can be proven using the 
following example. 



10 0PEN4.4 

20 FOR I-1T04 

30 PRINT#4, M 0123456789"; 

40 NEXT I 

50 PRINT#4,CHR$<10) 

55 PRINT#4,CHR$<14> 

60 PRINT#4, CHR*<16 V09VIC-1525" ; 

70 PRIHT#4>CHR$a6V , 30PRINTER" 

80 CL0SE4 

RUN 
0123456789012345678901234567890123456769 

VIC-1525 PRINTER 

3.9 

23. 



4.5 Print Start Position-Dot Address 

Using the CHR$(27), the absolute address (dot units) can be 
specified via the following format. 



CHR$(27) 


CHR$(16) 


CHR$(0) 


CHR$(15) 



3.10 



The 2 bytes that follow CHR$(27) and CHR$(16) are binary data 
used to indicate the absolute address away from the home position 
(dot units). 



1st byte 
2nd byte 



I); 


I\ 


I), 


W 


1), 


a 


D, 


1) 








(.) 














P« 


Pr 


W 


P 3 


p« 


P 3 


1*2 


w 


Po 



Higher 1 bit (HP) 
Lower 8 bits (LP) 



3.11 



The above 2 bytes are used to indicate the starting print position and 
are treated as a single 9 bit binary notation data inside the Printer. 



P. 


p ? 


p«l p 5 


P* 


P 3 


P* 


P, 


l\ 



3.12 

For example the dot address 15 can be determined by HP=CHR$(0), 
LP=CHR$(15). 



dot address 



0123456789 1011121314 151617 



474475476477478479 



O 
O 
O 
O 
O 

o 
o 



o< 
o< 

o< 
o< 

Oi 



>o 
>o 

► o 

► o 

► o 



o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 



o 
o 
o 
■o 
o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



00 01 
character address 



02 



79 



3.13 



24. 



4.6 Repetition of Graphic Data 

By using CHR$(26) you can repeat graphic data where you wish. 



CHR$(8) 




CHR$(26) 


NUMBER OF REPETITION 


DATA 



3.14 



What is actually repeatable is just 1 column of graphic information. 
The following example uses a CHR$(26) code to draw the graphic. 



1376 
1977 
1373 

1373 

1933 wmmaammmmmmm 123 

1331 mssmammsammmmmmmmmmm :36 




3.15 

10 0PEN4..4 

20 FGRI=9TQ5 

30 REPBfl:fl*=fl*+CHR*Cfl> : NEXT 

49 FOR I =0105 : RERDB = B$=CHR* < B ) 

50 C*»CHR$<253)+CHR$<39)KHR*<15)+CHR*<32) 
60 D$=STR$( 1376+1 > 

70 F3:N T #4,CHR*Ci5>£$R$B$C*3 

30 NEXT ' 

30 CMD4"LI3 T 

100 T}fiTfi.8,2?> 16.. 0.53 .26 

110 3RTP34, 57, 73-33.. 123,136 



READY. 



4.7 Cursor Up Mode 



3.16 



By using the CHR$(145) code you have selected the CURSOR UP 
character mode. Like the Standard character mode your printer 
automatically selects the CURSOR UP mode 



25. 



Example ***** 

***** 
♦♦♦♦♦ 

***** 



IS 0PEN4,4 

20 PPINT#4,.CHR$a43)SPCa5)' '**♦**" 
30 PRINT#4,CHR$<145)SPCa3)"*****" 
40 PRINT#4, CHRS <1 45 >3PC<1 5) '>♦♦♦♦'' 

59 PRIHT#4,CHR$(145)3PC(15)"***** M 

60 CMD4:LIST 

REflDV. 

3.17 

4.8 Cursor Down Mode 

By using the CHR$(17) code you have selected the CURSOR DOWN 
character mode. Unlike the other modes mentioned thus far, when 
you select the CURSOR DOWN mode you must use the 
SECONDARY ADDRESS (sa) of 7 in your OPEN command to 
insure that the CURSOR DOWN mode will RUN properly. The 
example below shows the correct use of the CURSOR DOWN mode. 

Personal c o r n P u. t e r 
graphic Pr i Titer 



10 oPenS,4,7 

2 P r i n t # S , c h r $ < 1 7 ') " P e r s o n a 1 c: o m p u t e r ' ' 
30 P r i Tit#3 , chr $ < 1 7 > " 9r aP h i c P r i nt er " 
40 crodS : 1 ist 



ready 



3.18 



4.9 Reverse Field Mode 



By selecting the CHR$(18) you have turned on the REVERSE 
FIELD mode. This prints white letters on a black background. 



26. 






10 oPen9,4,7 

20 Prirtt#9,chr$ (18) "Personal Computer" 
30 Print#9,chr$a8) M GraPhic Printer" 
40 cmd9 : list 

ready. 3.19 

4.10 Reset Reverse Field Mode 

When you use CHR$(146) you turn OFF the REVERSE FIELD 
mode that you selected by using the CHR$ in chapter 4.9. 



Graphic Printer 



10 oPenl0,4,7 

20 Print#10,chr*a9> "Personal Computer" 
30 Print#10,chrf<146V'GraPhic Printer" 
40 cmdl0 : list 

ready . 3i2 o 

4.11 Mixture of Various Print Mode 

You can use the following example to get an idea as to how to 
combine more than 1 print mode, even in one line. 

O COMMODORE 

10 DRTR3, 27, 16,0,36 
20 HRTR156, 136, 162, 162, 193, 133 
30 DRTR133, 193, 132, 182, 162, 162, 14 
40 FQRI=1T018 
50 RERDR:fl$=R*+CHR$<fO 
■ 60 NEXT 



27. 



70 OPEN 1,4 

38 PRINT#l,fl$" COMMODORE" 
30 PRINT#1,CHR$<15) 
100 CMDl^LIST 



READY. 



4.12 Line Feed Spacing 



3.21 



Linefeeds are executed in accordance with the print mode in effect 
just prior to the execution of a print command. 

• Character and double width character modes 6 LPI 

• Graphic mode 9 LPI 



Example 

1 9 OPEN 1 2 , 4 : S I *=CHR* < 1 5 > : BS*=CHR* -' 8 > 



20 PRINT#12,3I* M r 
30 PRINTS 12, SI*" I 
48 PRINT#12..SI*" h 
50 PRINT#12,SI*" I 
60 PRINT* 12, SI*" u 
70 CL0SE4 

RUN 



V£S* 
PBS* 

-PES* 
PBS* 





- "■— — — 1 




„ 



3.22 



4.13 Data Buffer Size 

Your printer's print-line buffer can contain up to 90 bytes of data. 
At least 1 byte will be used for the CHARACTER code mode. But 
. . . since your printer provides you with automatic printing, you are 
guaranteed that no loss of data due to overflow will occur. This 
means that you really don't have to worry about buffer size. In 
addition to the print data, the following will also be included in your 
buffer: 



28. 



Input Code Bytes 

CHR$(8) 1 

CHR$(10) 1 

CHR$(13) 1 

CHR$(14) 1 

CHR$(15) 1 

CHR$(16)/CHR$(0)/CHR$(15) 3 

CHR$(17) 1 

CHR$(18) 1 

CHR$(26)/number of repetitions/mark data 3 

CHR$(27)/CHR$(16)/CHR$(0)/CHR$(15) 3 

CHR$(145) 1 

CHR$(146) 1 

5. Automatic Printing 

Automatic printing will occur under 3 conditions. In order to understand 
exactly what's happening, you have to have a little knowledge about how 
your printer works. First, each printed character is made from 6 rows of 
dots. Next, you can have up to 80 characters per printed line (spaces count 
as 6 dot positions just like letters and numbers). This means that there are 
a total of 480 dots per line. Now you're ready for the 3 conditions. 

a. When the buffer fills up during the input of data. 

b. When your printer "sees" that you have used up more than the 480 
dots per line that was described above. 

c. When both a and b happen at the same time. 
What will happen when these conditions occur? 

a. When the buffer fills during printing, it prints out everything it has 
been storing onto your paper. But ... it remembers where it stopped 
printing so that it can continue from that point, when and if you 
want to. Or, it will print again when you fill the buffer again. 

b. When the printer uses up more than 480 dots, then it prints out the 
line and then stops and tells you that it's READY for more 
information. 

c. When both a and b occur, your printer will "dump" only the first 80 
characters and print them. Then it will move to the next line. At this 
point, the printer will do 2 things: 1) It will hold any characters that 
have been left in the buffer and add to them; 2) It will give you a 
READY for more information statement. 



29. 



APPENDIX A VIC 1 525 PRINTER SPECIFICATIONS 



1 . General Specifications 

A. Print method Impact dot matrix print(uni-hammer 

method) 

B. Character matrix 6x7 dot matrix 

C. Characters Upper/lower case characters, nu- 

merals, symbols, and PET graphic 
characters 

D. Graphics Dot addressible. 7 vertical dots per 

column, max 480 columns. 

E. Character codes VIC-20 8-BIT CODE 

F. Character size Height: 7 dots (2.82 mm) 

Width : 6 dots (2.53 mm) 

G. Print speed 30 characters/sec (left to right, uni- 

directional) 
H. Max. number of columns .... 80 columns 

I. Character spacing 10 characters/inch 

J. Linefeed spacing 6 lines/ inch Character mode 

9 lines/inch Graphic mode 

K. Linefeed speed 5 linefeeds/sec .... Character mode 

7.5 linefeeds/sec . . . Graphic mode 

L. Paper feed Pin feed 

M. Paper width 4.5 to 10" width (including tractor 

feed holes) 

8 x /£" width (after tractor hole re- 
moved 

N. Multiple copies Original plus maximum I or 2 copies 

O. Inked ribbon Single color, inked roller built-in 

cassette type 

P. External dimensions 234.5DX420WX 136H mm 

Q. Weight Approximately 4.5 kg 

2. Operating Environment 

A. Power requirements 120V (USA), 220 ~~ 240V (Europe) 

AC ± 10%, 50/60 Hz 

B. Power consumption 20 watts max. (character printing) 

8 watts (idling) 

C. Temperature 5°C ~ 40°C 

D. Humidity 20% ~ 80% (no condensation) 



30. 



VIC 1515 PRINTER SPECIFICATIONS 



1 . General Specifications 

A. Print method Impact dot matrix print(uni-hammer 

method) 

B. Character Matrix 6 x 7 dot matrix 

C. Characters upper/lower case characters, nu- 

merals symbols, and PET graphic 
characters 

D. Graphics Dot addressible. 7 vertical dots per 

column, max 480 columns. 

E. Character codes VIC-20 8-BIT CODE 

F. Character size Height: 7 dots (2.82 mm) 

Width : 6 dots (2. II mm) 

G. Print speed 30 characters/sec (left to right, uni- 

directional) 
H. Max. number of columns .... 80 columns 

I. Character spacing 1 2 characters/inch 

J. Linefeed spacing 6 lines/inch Character mode. 

9 lines/inch Graphic mode 

K. Linefeed speed 5 linefeeds/sec .... Character mode 

7.5 linefeeds/sec . . . Graphic mode 

L. Paper feed .Pin feed 

M. Paper width 4.5 to 8 inches acceptable 

N. Multiple copies Original plus maximum 2 copies 

0. Inked ribbon Single color, inked roller built-in 

cassette type 

P. External dimensions 172.5D X328WX132 H mm 

0- Weight Approximately 2.5 kg 

2. Operating Environment 

A. Power requirements 120V (USA), 220 ~- 240V (Europe) 

AC± 10%, 50/60 Hz 

B. Power consumption 15 watts max. (character printing) 

5 watts (idling) 

C. Temperature 5°C ~ 40°C 

D. Humidity 20% ~ 80% (no condensation) 



31. 



APPENDIX B Hard Copy off the Screen 



The following sample program can be used to get a hard printed copy of a 
program you have on your screen. The Program is made to be used as a 
sub-routine. That means that when you use it, you must have a "GOSUB 
60000" in your program where appropriate. 



6mm REM SCREEN COPV 

68010 SI **CHR* (15): BS*=CHR* < 8 > : F0$=CHR* (16) 

60828 RV*=CHR$a8> : R0$-CHR*a46> : QT*=CHR*(34> 

60039 MF*=CHR* a 45 > = VP~PEEK < 648 > #256 

60040 0PEN4 , 4 = PR I NT#4 

Smm FORCL*0TO22 : QF*0 : RS$«MF* = FORRO=0TO21 

6WS0 SC«PEEK<VR+22#CL+R0> 

60070 IFSC=34THENQF=<1~QF 

Sm&B I FSCO 1 62THENS0 1 1 e 

60090 GF=1-QF : IFQF=1THENRS$==RS*+RV*+QT$ : GOTO60170 

60100 flS*=flS*+QT*+R0* ; GOTO60170 ■ GOTO60130 

60 110 1 FQF« 1 AND < SC>» 1 28 ) THENSOSO 128 = GOTO60 1 30 

60 1 20 1 FSC>= 1 2STHENSC=SC~ 1 28 = RF= 1 : RS*=RS*+RV* 

60130 IFSC<320RSC>95THENRS=*SC+64 : GOTG60160 

60140 IFSC>31RNDSC<64THENRS=SC : GOTO60160 

60 1 50 IFSC>63RNDSC<96THENRS=SC+32 : GOTO60 i 60 

60 1 60 RS*»RS*+CHR* C AS '> 

68170 IFRF*1THENRS**RS*+R0* : RF*0 

60180 NEXTRO 

60 1 90 I FQF»0THENPR I NT#4 , S I *P0$ " 20 " RS* ; GOTO602 1 

60200 PR I NT#4 .- S I $+P0*+ "20" +RS$+QT* 

602 1 NEMTCL : PR I NT#4 , S I $ : CL0SE4 : RETURN 

B.l 



This program is made for the CURSOR UP mode. If you wish to write the 
program in the CURSOR DOWN mode, you must change MF$=CHR$(145) 
to MF$=CHR$(18) in line 60030. 



This program is also made for VIC-20. If you wish to use this program to 
Commodore 64, you should change line 60050. 

60050 FORCL*0TO24 • QF'^B ' RS**MF$ : FQRRO0TO39 

Note)This program can't print the characters following the reverse quote. 



32. 



APPENDIX C VIC PRINTER Code Table 



CURSORUP MODE Code & Font Table 



I 23456789ABCDEF 




Note) When ASCII $22 ( " ) is detected, until second ASCII $22 or ASCII SOD 
(CR) is detected, following control codes ($00~$ IF, $80~$9F) don't it's con- 
trol function, but print correspondent reverse characters (reverse $40~$5f , 
$C0~$DF). However, ASCII $0D (CR) does always Carrige Return. 



33. 



CURSORDOWN MODE Code & Font Table 



23456789ABCDEF 




Note) When ASCII $22 ( " ) is detected, until second ASCII $22 or ASCII $0D 
(CR) is detected, following control codes ($00~$1F, $80~$9F) don't it's con- 
trol function, but print correspondent reverse characters (reverse $40~$5F, 
$C0~$DF). However, ASCII $0D (CR) does always Carrige Return. 



34. 



Cx commodore 

COMPUTER